[92] Since 1989, despite extensive excavation for new buildings, no war-related bodies have been found. [88] Three municipal and 17 rural cemeteries outside Dresden recorded up to 30 April 1945 a total of at least 21,895 buried bodies of the Dresden raids, including those cremated on the Altmarkt. All these civilians' remains were burned to ashes".[162]. [62], Primary sources disagree as to whether the aiming point was the marshalling yards near the centre of the city or the centre of the built-up urban area. [8] According to historian Donald Miller, "the economic disruption would have been far greater had Bomber Command targeted the suburban areas where most of Dresden's manufacturing might was concentrated". It is connected with German bands and Dresden shepherdesses. L'United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) et la Royal Air Force (RAF) utilisèrent des bombes incendiaires notamment à la thermite We are all capable of evil and must be restrained by law from committing it. La ligne de chemin de fer allant à Pirna. La ville (629 713 habitants en 1939) comprenait en effet plusieurs gares et centralisait des réseaux téléphoniques vitaux pour le front de l'Est ; en raison des circonstances, elle aurait été intégrée tardivement au projet opération Thunderclap (de) en août 1944 qui proposait originairement de frapper Berlin[5] de manière décisive[6]. [152], German author Günter Grass is one of several intellectuals and commentators who have also called the bombing a war crime.[153]. Cookies hjælper os desuden med at få overblik over dit besøg på hjemmesiden. The Allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians and civic infrastructure. [15][16][17] The city authorities at the time estimated up to 25,000 victims, a figure that subsequent investigations supported, including a 2010 study commissioned by the city council. Les bombes classiques et à retardement furent aussi utilisées. The largest, beneath the main railway station, was housing 6,000 refugees. Ici, je dirai seulement que l'attaque de Dresde était à l'époque considérée comme une nécessité militaire par des personnes beaucoup plus importantes que moi." The Eighth Air Force had already bombed the railway yards near the centre of the city twice in daytime raids: once on 7 October 1944 with 70 tons of high-explosive bombs killing more than 400,[46] then again with 133 bombers on 16 January 1945, dropping 279 tons of high-explosives and 41 tons of incendiaries. Le bombardement de Dresde pourrait légitimement reprocher aux Alliés comme crime de guerre. [31] British historian Frederick Taylor mentions a further memo sent to the Chiefs of Staff Committee by Air Marshal Sir Douglas Evill on 1 February, in which Evill states interfering with mass civilian movements was a major, even key, factor in the decision to bomb the city centre. Le bombardement de Dresde par les Alliés, du 13 au 15 février 1945, détruisit la quasi-totalité de la ville. En 1949, voulant apporter son témoignage, le photographe Richard Peter, habitant de Dresde, publie Dresden, eine Kamera klagt an (Dresde, un appareil photo accuse)[40]. ... How much guilt does this parasite not bear for all this, which we owe to his indolence and love of his own comforts. Le bombardement de Dresde du 13 & 14 Février 1945, a ,au bas mot causé 135.000 victimes. The bombing of Dresden was a British-American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II. Laurie.B. "[23] He mentioned that aircraft diverted to such raids should not be taken away from the current primary tasks of destroying oil production facilities, jet aircraft factories, and submarine yards. The first group to arrive over the target was the 401st, but it missed the city centre and bombed Dresden's southeastern suburbs, with bombs also landing on the nearby towns of Meissen and Pirna. [7] Le bombardement de Dresde, lors de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et à un degré moindre, le bombardement de Hambourg en 1943 et le bombardement de Tōky ō, restent aujourd'hui encore controversés (bien que dans le cas du dernier, la décentralisation voulue des sous-traitants de l'industrie militaire ait été dévastatrice). In response, Portal, who was in Yalta, asked Bottomley to send him a list of objectives to discuss with the Soviets. I can see her to this day and shall never forget it. I wrote this book, which earned a lot of money for me and made my reputation, such as it is. neumarkt-dresden", "German Architecture Forum (deutsches-architekturforum) - Dresden: Neumarkt", "Dresden Bombing Is To Be Regretted Enormously", "Judgement: Whether Irving has bent of falsified or misrepresented evidence", "Judgement: Irving's case as to the death toll and his use of TB47", "How Can We Prevent Genocide: Building An International Campaign to End Genocide", The Destruction of Dresden's Frauenkirche, German historian provokes row over war photos, Germany Seeks Tighter Curbs on Protests by Neo-Nazi Party, "German ruling says Dresden was a holocaust", "Die Antideutschen – kein vorübergehendes Phänomen" – Verfassungsschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen Im Oktober 2006", "Strange Bedfellows: Radical Leftists for Bush | Germany | DW.DE | 25.08.2006", "Letter to the editor, Thursday, July 7th, 1966", "Victor Klemperer's Dresden Diaries: Surviving the Firestorm", "Dresden 1945: Wilhelm Rudolph's Compulsive Inventory,", "A towering achievement of a film, full of horrific secrets", "Bombing civilians is not only immoral, it's ineffective", "Extract from the official account of Bomber Command by Arthur Harris, 1945 (Catalogue ref: AIR 16/487)", "Necessary or not, Dresden remains a topic of anguish", "Abschlussbericht der Historikerkommission zu den Luftangriffen auf Dresden zwischen dem 13. und 15. What they were looking for was a big built-up area which they could burn, and that Dresden possessed in full measure. I tilknytning til jernbanen var det eneste stadigt fungerende jernbaneværksted på Hauptbahnhof i Dresden. Le 13 Février à 09h40 quand les Mosquitos commencèrent les plans de repérage à l'aide de fusées éclairantes, il y avait dans la cité environ 500.000 réfugiés. One way or another, I got two or three dollars for every person killed. The RAF also had an advantage over the Germans in the field of electronic radar countermeasures. Les deux premiers raids de la RAF furent de 243 puis 529 Lancaster (bombardiers de nuit en raison de leur conception moins défensive – cible : ville « city area ») ; le troisième, le lendemain 14, par l'USAF, était de 316 B-17 (bombardiers conçus pour opérer de jour avec des défenses efficaces à bord, et avec précision – cible : triages « marshalling yards ») accompagné de 100 à 200 chasseurs ; le quatrième raid, le 15 février, de L'USAF, était de 211 B-17 – cible : triages[13],[14]. Stort udvalg af Bombardement til billige priser. But to do so was always repugnant and now that the Germans are beaten anyway we can properly abstain from proceeding with these attacks. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca (en) en 1943. He asserted in Dresden im Luftkrieg (1977) that only a few tales of civilians being strafed were reliable in detail, and all were related to the daylight attack on 14 February. Harris quotes as his source the Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman "From Apes to Warlords" p. 352. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGrayling2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGrayling2006b (, United Newsreel on the bombing of Dresden, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Aerial bombardment and international law § International law up to 1945, Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, blocked a demonstration of far-right organizations, Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death, Operation Gomorrah campaign against Hamburg. This had ground breaking results because it demonstrated a broad support for the aims of the initiative and a widespread appreciation for historical Dresden. Dresden was a civilian town with no military significance. I think these three reasons probably cover the bombing. Bombardement dresde. It was Stokes' questions in the House of Commons that were in large part responsible for the shift in the UK against this type of raid. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing. ph, bombardement lysekrone 2/1, hængelampe, reserveret reserveret reserveret bombardement lysekrone i meget pÆn stand, flot stel, og med glas der er flotte og intakte ingen fejl. [52], The main bomber force, called Plate Rack, took off shortly after the Pathfinders. 17 juin 2019 - Découvrez le tableau "Dresde" de gerald sur Pinterest. [33][34] However according to Richard Overy, the discussion with the Soviet Chief of Staff, Aleksei Antonov, recorded in the minutes, only mentions the bombing of Berlin and Leipzig. Bomb the glow of red TIs as planned". Les bombardements de Dresde. The next set of aircraft to leave England were twin-engined Mosquito marker planes, which would identify target areas and drop 1,000-pound (450 kg) target indicators (TIs)"[50] that created a red glow for the bombers to aim at. Le premier maire communiste de Dresde, après la guerre, Walter Weidauer (de), considérait en 1946 les attaques comme évitables bien qu'ayant été provoquées par les « fascistes allemands ». Development of a German political response to the raid took several turns. The damage to other infrastructure and communications was immense, which would have severely limited the potential use of Dresden to stop the Soviet advance. [55] Between 01:21 and 01:45, 529 Lancasters dropped more than 1,800 tons of bombs. But they are strategically justified in so far as they tend to shorten the war and preserve the lives of Allied soldiers. [74], Dresden's air defences had been depleted by the need for more weaponry to fight the Red Army, and the city lost its last massive flak battery in January 1945. Pour le parti d’extrême droite Alternative pour l'Allemagne (AFD), le nombre officiel de victimes est largement sous-estimé. Find Dresde Apocalypse at Amazon.com Movies & TV, home of thousands of titles on DVD and Blu-ray. DK’s største udvalg af designerlamper. It was overdone, it was excessive and is to be regretted enormously," but, "A war crime is a very specific thing which international lawyers argue about all the time and I would not be prepared to commit myself nor do I see why I should. The uncertainty this introduced is thought to amount to no more than 100. "[146], According to historian Sönke Neitzel, "it is difficult to find any evidence in German documents that the destruction of Dresden had any consequences worth mentioning on the Eastern Front. But the Allies' firebombing of Dresden and nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were also war crimes – and as Leo Kuper and Eric Markusen have argued, also acts of genocide. Voici 70 ans, du 13 au 15 février 1945, la ville de Dresde fut largement détruite par un raid aérien massif de bombardiers anglais et américains. 47) considéré actuellement comme falsifié[22],[23],[24], une copie[25] de l'original ayant été retrouvée à Dresde par Götz Bergander. 125 relations. Le bombardement qui ne « pouvait pas avoir lieu ». Christian Guyard. The unease was made worse by an Associated Press story that the Allies had resorted to terror bombing. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en . [140], In late July 1943, the city of Hamburg was bombed in Operation Gomorrah by combined RAF and USAAF strategic bomber forces. "Timewitnesses", moderated by Tom Halloway, Margaret Freyer, survivor, cited in Cary, John. Vonnegut recalled "utter destruction" and "carnage unfathomable." [141] Two-thirds of the remaining population reportedly fled the city after the raids.[142]. The groups that followed the 303rd (92nd, 306th, 379th, 384th and 457th) also found Dresden obscured by clouds, and they too used H2X. Dresde 1945 on Amazon.com.au. Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. [20] A special British Joint Intelligence Subcommittee report, German Strategy and Capacity to Resist, prepared for Winston Churchill's eyes only, predicted that Germany might collapse as early as mid-April if the Soviets overran its eastern defences. [145] McKee further asserts "The bomber commanders were not really interested in any purely military or economic targets, which was just as well, for they knew very little about Dresden; the RAF even lacked proper maps of the city. A British charity, the Dresden Trust, was formed in 1993 to raise funds in response to the call for help, raising £600,000 from 2,000 people and 100 companies and trusts in Britain. La croyance des habitants dans l'impossibilité d'une attaque massive était très répandue et les réfugiés de l'Est s'y dirigeaient spontanément. At 22:00 hours, the force heading for Böhlen split away from Plate Rack, which turned south east toward the Elbe. Reply . The other groups all bombed Dresden between 12:00 and 12:10. [155] In Fire Sites, German historian Jörg Friedrich says that the RAF's bombing campaign against German cities in the last months of the war served no military purpose. [7], The journalist Alexander McKee cast doubt on the meaningfulness of the list of targets mentioned in the 1953 USAF report, pointing out that the military barracks listed as a target were a long way out of the city and were not in fact targeted during the raid. [91] 35,000 people were registered with the authorities as missing after the raids, around 10,000 of whom were later found alive.[91]. Grierson answered that the primary aim was to attack communications to prevent the Germans from moving military supplies, and to stop movement in all directions if possible. Alors que les pilotes de l'USAF ne connaissaient généralement pas la ville de Dresde, certains de la RAF connaissaient le caractère artistique et touristique de la capitale de l'ancien Royaume de Saxe (d'où son surnom « Elbflorenz » : la Florence de l'Elbe) concrètement illustré par les manufactures de porcelaine de Saxe, appelée en anglais « Dresden China ». It was a terrible lesson; conceivably that lesson, both in Germany and abroad, could be the most lasting single effect of the air war".[118]. Unusually, the map showing the route to the target was covered by a sheet. [157] This provoked an outrage in the German parliament and triggered responses from the media. The Dresden bombings achieved the strategic objectives that underlay the attack and were of mutual importance to the Allies and the Russians. [63] The mix of bombs for the Dresden raid was about 40% incendiaries—much closer to the RAF city-busting mix than the USAAF usually used in precision bombardment. Utile. His account relates that over 135,000 were killed during the firebombings. [67] The 379th bombardment group started to bomb Dresden at 12:17, aiming at marshalling yards in the Friedrichstadt district west of the city centre, as the area was not obscured by smoke and cloud. One of the gifts they made to the project was an eight-metre high orb and cross made in London by goldsmiths Gant MacDonald, using medieval nails recovered from the ruins of the roof of Coventry Cathedral, and crafted in part by Alan Smith, the son of a pilot who took part in the raid. On possède des observations de telles tempêtes de feu pour le bombardement de Coventry par l'Allemagne, celui de Hambourg[36] (opération Gomorrhe), et pour les bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et Nagasaki. Voir les 6 commentaires critiques › pierre. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. c) un document de 101 pages (Helmut Schnatz) sur les attaques de civils à la mitrailleuse depuis des avions à basse altitude, attaques dont la réalité est alléguée et non prouvée, aucune découverte archéologique de balles de calibre 50 -12,7mm- près de l'Elbe, par exemple, n'ayant été faite. [82] In a 1965 letter to The Guardian, Irving later adjusted his estimates even higher, "almost certainly between 100,000 and 250,000", but all these figures were shortly found to be inflated: Irving finally published a correction in The Times in a 1966 letter to the editor[164] lowering it to 25,000, in line with subsequent scholarship. Un bombardement, à plusieurs milliers de km de la ligne de front, est toujours un acte politique. Since no official estimate had been developed, the numbers were speculative, but newspapers such as the Stockholm Svenska Morgonbladet used phrases such as "privately from Berlin," to explain where they had obtained the figures. À l'arrière-plan, la manufacture de tabac Yenidze. Cette thèse est notamment défendue par Jacques Pauwels[10]. "The Bombing of Dresden," in. "The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany" (SOA), HMSO (1961) vol 3 pp. This led to the city councils decision to rebuild a large amount of baroque buildings in accordance to historical designs, but with modern buildings in between them. Hvorfor vi bruger cookies? We saw the burning street, the falling ruins and the terrible firestorm. A secondary objective was to disrupt the industrial use of Dresden for munitions manufacture, which American intelligence believed was the case. Civilian strafing was in fact a regular practice of the Luftwaffe throughout the war. President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)met at Yalta in the USSR and compromised on their visions of the postwar world. [49], The first of the British aircraft took off at around 17:20 hours CET for the 700-mile (1,100 km) journey. Leur toit était peint en blanc avec une croix rouge, rassurant encore davantage les habitants. By this time, ten of the Lancasters were out of service, leaving 244 to continue to Dresden. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. D'accord avec l'article ? » La photo du célèbre photographe Richard Petersen montre les ruines de la Mohrenapotheke dans la Johannesstraße (aujourd’hui St. Petersburger Straße) à Dresde. [21], Plans for a large, intense aerial bombing of Berlin and the other eastern cities had been discussed under the code name Operation Thunderclap in mid-1944, but were shelved on 16 August. den tidligere ejer har ikke kunne finde catifikatet. "Je sais que la destruction d’une ville aussi grande et splendide à cette étape avancée de la guerre a été jugée inutile même par un grand nombre de personnes qui admettaient que nos attaques précédentes étaient aussi justifiées que toutes les autres opérations de guerre. The Nazi Holocaust was among the most evil genocides in history. Frauenkirche: Exceptionnel - consultez 6 542 avis de voyageurs, 3 948 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Dresde, Allemagne sur Tripadvisor. The Polish Government ordered the pilots to follow their orders and fly their missions over Dresden, which they did. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. [12] Some, mostly in the German far-right, refer to the bombing as a mass murder, calling it "Dresden's Holocaust of bombs". Free delivery on qualified orders. Februar 1945", Air operations during the Battle of Europe, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bombing_of_Dresden_in_World_War_II&oldid=994797400, History of the Royal Air Force during World War II, World War II strategic bombing of Germany, Aerial operations and battles of World War II by town or city, Germany–United Kingdom military relations, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 7 aircraft (1 B-17 and 6 Lancasters, including crews), Military units and anti-aircraft defences were sufficiently close that it was not valid to consider the city "undefended.". My mother covered us with wet blankets and coats she found in a water tub. The report concludes with: The specific forces and means employed in the Dresden bombings were in keeping with the forces and means employed by the Allies in other aerial attacks on comparable targets in Germany. [112][113][114] This was completed on 1 April 1945: ...the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. Berceau du mouvement xénophobe Pegida, Dresde est une ville politiquement très divisée. First among these are the Nazi government's exaggerated claims immediately afterwards,[15][16][17] which drew upon the beauty of the city, its importance as a cultural icon; the deliberate creation of a firestorm; the number of victims; the extent to which it was a necessary military target; and the fact that it was attacked toward the end of the war, raising the question of whether the bombing was needed to hasten the end. Some figures from historians include: 18,000+ (but less than 25,000) from Antony Beevor in "The Second World War"; 20,000 from Anthony Roberts in "The Storm of War"; 25,000 from Ian Kershow in "The End"; 25,000–30,000 from Michael Burleigh in "Moral Combat"; 35,000 from Richard J. Evans in "The Third Reich at War: 1939-1945".