6 July 1744 d. 8 December 1801, 24 November 1745 child birth: ♀ Maria Louisa of Bourbon [Bourbon-Anjou] b. "The Improbable Empire" in, Kent, Jacquelyn Briggs. He succeeded his maternal great-uncle Antonio Farnesio, as Duke of Parma and Plaisance in 1731. He constructed a collection of palaces in and around Naples. Charles left a lasting legacy on his kingdom, introducing reforms during his reign. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, that Charles had not ratified, foresaw the eventuality of his accession to Spain; thus Naples and Sicily went to his brother Philip, Duke of Parma, while the possessions of the latter were divided between Maria Theresa (Parma and Guastalla) and the King of Sardinia (Plaisance). Charles III of Spain (Charles Sebastian; Spanish: Carlos Sebastián; Italian and Neapolitan: Carlo Sebastiano; Sicilian: Carlu Bastianu; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) ruled Spain (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles of Bourbon (1734–1759) and Sicily, where he was known simply as Charles III, (1735–1759). He married Marie of Anjou (1404-1463) 18 December 1422 JL in Bourges. It was later performed at the Farnese Theatre in the city.[9][10]. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years. 6 September 1740 d. 2 November 1742, 20 January 1742 child birth: Portici, ♀ María Josefa von Spanien [Bourbon-Anjou] b. Spanish troops led by the Count of Montemar attacked the Austrians on 25 May 1734 at Bitonto, and achieved a decisive victory. He commanded the Imperial troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in what became known as the Sack of Rome in 1527, where he was killed. div.wb, div.hb { border: solid 0 blue; } A proponent of enlightened absolutism and regalism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs. He claimed the succession to the patrimony of the Bourbon family, including the Seigneurie de Bourbon, on the death in 1503 without male heirs of Pierre II Duc de Bourbon. Capua, the only remaining Austrian stronghold in Naples, was held by von Traun until 24 November 1734. 1501 title: Comte de Montpensier, de Clermont et Dauphin d'Auvergne. Despite the King's goodwill, the Jewish community of Sicily which had flourished in the Middle East was not re-established. Charles encouraged the development of skilled craftsmen in Naples and Sicily, after centuries of foreign domination. His half-brother was King Henry IV of France Biography. He was known simply as Charles of Bourbon (Italian: Carlo di Borbone). Charles of Bourbon returned to Spain via Barcelona, where he wished to set foot for the first time as new king. Charles left Spain on 20 October 1731 and traveled overland to Antibes; he then sailed to Tuscany, arriving at Livorno on 27 December 1731. The agreement was achieved on 12 May 1738. Great Hereditary Prince of Tuscany. [37][38], The rivalry with Britain also led him to support the American revolutionaries in their war of independence (1776-1783), despite his misgivings about the example it would set for Spain's overseas territories. Under the terms of the treaty, the Spanish Empire retained its American territories and the Philippines, but ceded to Hapsburg Austria, the Southern Netherlands, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, the Duchy of Milan, and the State of Presidi. In order to defend the Duchy of Parma from Charles Emmanuel's threats, Charles deployed troops on the borders of the Papal States. Charles III (1716–1788), the founding father of the Bourbon dynasty in Naples captured this city in 1734 and was the first ruler of Naples to actually live there. ), francia főnemes, Bourbon hercege, Montpensier grófja, az itáliai háborúkban 1507–1523 között XII. The letter began with the words "To the King of Naples, My Son, and My Brother". [36], Concerns about the intrusions of British and Russian merchants into Spain's colonies in California prompted the extension of Franciscan missions to Alta California, as well as presidios. On the front of the ducal palace in Parma was written Parma Resurget (Parma shall rise again). After publishing a proclamation on 25 March 1744 reassuring its subjects, Charles took the command of an army against the Austrian armies of the prince of Lobkowitz, who were at that point marching for the Neapolitan border. Receiving the Hackney from the Holy Roman Empire was common while receiving it from a Bourbon was unusual. To cut short protracted legal disputes, he was betrothed to Suzanne de Bourbon, and from that time was confirmed as Charles III Duc de Bourbon et d'Auvergne. Grandezza e decadenza di una dinastia Italiana, Rome, La Libreria Dello Stato, 1954. In 1734, King Charles III of Spain from the house of Bourbon took over rule from the Austrians and was crowned King Charles VII of Naples. The rule of Charles III has been considered the "apogee of empire" and not sustained after his death. 2 December 1749 d. 2 May 1750, 12 January 1751 child birth: ♂ Ferdinando Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto Bourbon [Bourbon-Two Sicilies] b. They have a thousand little secrets to tell one another, and they cannot part for an instant."[7]. The couple had 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood, including Charles, heir to the Spanish throne. ... and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily. In 1700, Charles's father, originally a French Bourbon prince, Philip of Anjou, became King of Spain as Philip V. For the remainder of his reign (1700–46), he continually attempted to regain the ceded territories in Europe. The Spanish took the Carmine Castle on 10 April; Castel Sant'Elmo fell on 27 April; the Castel dell' Ovo on 4 May, and finally the New Castle on 6 May. div.h, div.hb, div.hr { border-right-width: 2px; height: 4.5em; width: 1em; } Construction ideas for the stunning palace started in 1751 when he was 35 years old. div.ltm, div.lty, div.ltf { border-style: dotted } He undertook and oversaw the construction of one of Europe's most lavish palaces, the Palace of Caserta (Reggia di Caserta). When in 1759 Ferdinand VI died, he succeeded him on the Throne of Madrid with the name of Charles III, and renounced the crowns of Naples and Sicily (as foreseen by the Bourbon hereditary regulations; Charles strengthened this decision by issuing a Proclamation on 6 October 1759 by which he, once King of Spain, finally ratified the irreversible process of separation of the two Royal Families), and gave … 27 François I er (14 août 1777 – 8 novembre 1830) mort à 53 After the Treaty of Seville, Philip V disregarded its provisions and formed an alliance with France and Great Britain. Charles's mother Elisabeth Farnese sought potential brides for her son, when he was formally recognized as King of Naples and Sicily. The Pope, therefore, considered the first option a less dramatic gesture, and in doing so provoked the wrath of the religious Spanish infante. Royal Power in the Late Carolingian Age: Charles III the Simple and His Predecessors. He was the first of the Spanish Bourbon Kings of Naples. [1] He was the most popular king the Neapolitans had for years. Next, the crowd directed itself toward the embassy of Spain in Piazza di Spagna. His internal government was, on the whole, beneficial to the country. Charles III University of Madrid, established in 1989 and one of the world's top 300 Universities,[48] is named after him. Charles III de Habsbourg, en allemand Karl von Habsburg (né le 1 er octobre 1685 à Vienne – mort le 20 octobre 1740 dans la même ville), est empereur du Saint-Empire romain germanique sous le nom de Charles VI et roi de Hongrie sous le nom de Charles III (1711 – 1740). [8], Gian Gastone staged a fête in honor of the Patron Saint of Florence, St. John the Baptist, on 24 June. . They embraced very affectionately and kissed one another, and it appears to me that he does not displease her. Charles himself would be engaged to Philippine Elisabeth who was the fifth surviving daughter of the Duke of Orléans. He later had the Order of Charles III created in Spain on 19 September 1771. The Hackney was a white mare and a sum of money which the King of Naples offered the Pope as feudal homage every 29 June, at the feast of Saints Peter and Paul. His first stop was to pay homage to the remains of San Gennaro, the patron saint of the city, whose blood is said to have liquefied immediately. To celebrate the victory, Naples was illuminated for three nights, and on 30 May, the Duke of Montemar, Charles's army commander, was named the Duke of Bitonto. As he had two older brothers that secured the line of succession he became a cleric. He began by compelling the people of Madrid to give up emptying their slops out of the windows, and when they objected he said they were like children who cried when their faces were washed. Union(s) et enfant(s) Mariée le 7 juin 1833 (vendredi), Naples, Naples, Campanie, Italie, avec Léopold II de Toscane de Habsbourg-Lorraine, grand-duc de Toscane 1797-1870 (Parents :Ferdinand III de Toscane de Habsbourg-Lorraine, grand-duc de Toscane 1769-1824 & Louise de Bourbon-Naples … Charles represented a new type of ruler, who followed Enlightened absolutism. Charles was the second son of Charles III and his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony.He was born in Naples (11 November 1748), while his father was King of Naples and Sicily.His elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy.In Naples and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto. According to Domenico Caracciolo, this was "a fatal blow to the hopes and designs of the king of Sardinia".[32]. Taxes were collected by tax farming through low paid employees who supplemented their income by the exploitation of their position. France and Savoy formed an alliance to acquire territory from Austria. (Francis I of the Two Sicilies), Carlota Joaquina Teresa Cayetana de Borbón, Maria Dorothea Luise Wilhelmine Caroline of Württemberg, Hermine von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, Henrietta Alexandrine Frederika Wilhelmine of Nassau-Weilburg, Karl Ludwig Johann Josef Lorenz of Austria, Rainer Joseph Johann Michael Franz Hieronymus of Austria, Franz Joseph Karl von Habsburg-Lothringen, Elisabeth Wilhelmine Luise von Württemberg, Ferdinando Giuseppe Giovanni Baptista Habsburg-Tuscany. He married Maria of Hungary (c1257-1325) 1270 JL . [47] Charles III ascended the throne of Spain with considerable experience in governance, and enacted significant reforms to revivify Spain's economy and strengthen its empire. Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759). However, this was not the case, and the War of the Austrian Succession broke out. Not all his reforms were of this formal kind. She has the mind of an angel, and my son is only too happy to possess her . The alliance of Spain and Austria was signed on 30 April 1725 and included Spanish support for the Pragmatic Sanction, a document drafted by Emperor Charles in 1713 to assure support for Maria Theresa in the succession to the throne of the Habsburgs. Charles shared these ideals with other monarchs, including Maria Theresa of Austria, her son Joseph, and Catherine the Great of Russia. Bread riots in 1766, known as the Esquilache Riots, pinned the blame on the minister, but behind the uprising, the Society of Jesus was seen as the real culprit. [14] Vignola wrote in contrast that "there were only some acclamations", and that the crowd applauded with "a lot of languors" and only "to incite those that threw the money to throw it in more abundance".[15]. He was the great restorer of the Kingdom, but the first king of that dynasty who reigned over … Statue of Charles III of Bourbon, King of Spain and Charles VII of Naples, 1716-88, by Raffaele Belliazzi, 1835-1917, on the facade of the Palazzo Reale de Napoli, on the Piazza del Plebiscito, Naples, Campania, Italy. Also important was the Count of Aranda, who dominated the Council of Castile (1766-1773).[39]. "Smuggling and corruption were institutionalized at all levels."[27]. This allowed Charles and his troops to advance onto the city of Naples itself. He created the national anthem and a flag, a capital city worthy of the name, and the construction of a network of coherent roads converging on Madrid. The Spanish entered Naples and laid siege to the Austrian-held fortresses. ♂ Philip V de Bourbon [Bourbon-Anjou] b. Charles was responsible for granting the title "Royal University" to the University of Santo Tomás in Manila, which is the oldest in Asia. Vittorio Gleijeses, Don Carlos, Naples, Edizioni Agea, 1988, pp. During his reign, he expelled the Jesuits from the Spanish Empire. 3. His realm was financially a backward, underdeveloped stagnant agrarian economy, with 80% of the land being owned or controlled by the church and therefore tax-exempt. During his later years he had some trouble with his eldest son and daughter-in-law. The last two Austrian fortresses were Gaeta and Capua. Charles also eliminated the tax on flour and generally liberalized most commerce. In particular, he looked at the finances of the Philippines and encouraged commerce with the United States, starting in 1778. Ferdinand III de Bourbon-Deux-Siciles, duc de Calabre 1869-1960 Marié le 31 mai 1897 (lundi), München, Bayern, Allemagne, avecMaria Ludwiga Theresia von Bayern 1872-1954; Charles Tancrède de Bourbon-Deux-Siciles 1870 Although there were European conflicts to contend with, he died in 1788, months before the eruption of the French Revolution in July 1789. His quarrel with the Jesuits, and the memory of his with the Pope, while he was King of Naples, turned him towards a general policy of restriction of what he saw as the overgrown power of the Church. Landlords often registered their properties with the church to benefit from tax exemptions. He facilitated trade and commerce, modernized agriculture and land tenure, and promoted science and university research,. The birth of Charles encouraged Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. This choice was sharply criticized by the Neapolitan Ambassador in Turin, Domenico Caraccioli, who wrote: "The position of Italian matters is not more beautiful; but it is worsened by the fact that the King of Naples and the King of Sardinia, adding troops to larger forces of the others, could oppose itself to the plans of their neighbors; to defend itself against the dangers of the peace of the enemies themselves they were in a way united, but they are separated by their different systems of government."[30]. Through the apostolic nuncio, the Pope let Charles know he did not consider valid the nomination received by him from Charles's father, Philip V, King of Spain. During his reign, the areas of Asturias and Catalonia industrialized quickly and produced much revenue for the Spanish economy. Still, this was a significant symbolic gesture, the King clearly repudiating a past policy of religious intolerance. The papal subjects were punished with just a few days in jail and then, after seeking royal pardon, were granted it. The Academy of Real Navy December 10, 1735, was the first institution to be established by Charles III for cadets, followed 18 November 1787 by the Royal Military Academy (later Military School of Naples): Francesco Renda, Storia della Sicilia Dalle origini ai giorni nostri vol. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 confirmed the recovery of the Floridas and Menorca and restricted the actions of British commercial interests in Central America. 20 January 1742 d. 1 April 1742, 30 April 1743 child birth: Neapel, ♀ Maria Isabel von Spanien [Bourbon-Anjou] b. Cependant, comme nous l’avons vu auparavant His physical appearance was dominated by the Bourbon nose that he had inherited from his father's side of the family. Charles inspected the Spanish troops at Perugia, and marched toward Naples on 5 March. François 1er, fait prononcer le The site of the palace was also far away from the large volcano of Mount Vesuvius, which was a constant threat to the capital, as was the sea. Email & More. In Spanish America, the impact was significant, since the Jesuits were a wealthy and powerful religious order, owning lucrative haciendas that produced revenue funding its missions on the frontier and its educational institutions. Phone Number 2. Also known as Charles I Cardinal de Bourbon. His second full brother, Infante Philip of Spain, was born on 15 March 1720. This page was last modified 21:46, 26 May 2015. During the war, Spain recovered Menorca and West Florida in several military campaigns, but failed in their attempt to capture Gibraltar. For this, she looked to Austria, its principal opponent for influence on the Italian peninsula. "Charles III of Spain" in, Herr, Richard. The emperor had sent reinforcements to Naples directed by the Prince of Belmonte, which arrived at Bitonto. Franco Valsecchi, Il riformismo borbonico in Italia, Rome, Bonacci, 1990, Burkholder, Suzanne Hiles. Belmonte was captured after he fled to Bari, while other Austrian troops were able to escape to the sea. 30 April 1743 d. 5 March 1749, 6 July 1744 child birth: Madrid, ♀ Maria Josefa d'Espagne [Bourbon-Anjou] b. Felipe VI is also a descendant of Maria Theresa of Austria. He married Margaret di Durazzo (1347-1412) February 1369 JL . 65–66. To cut short protracted legal disputes, he was betrothed to Suzanne de Bourbon, and from that time was confirmed as Charles III Duc de Bourbon et d'Auvergne. [35], In the Falklands Crisis of 1770 the Spanish came close to war with Great Britain after expelling the British garrison of the Falkland Islands. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales. Maria Amalia was married by proxy at Dresden in May 1738, with her brother Frederick Christian of Saxony representing Charles. Meanwhile, Charles had landed in Sicily. Charles had wanted to stay neutral during the conflict, but his father wanted him to join in and gather troops to aid the French. In 1735, pursuant to the treaty ending the war, Charles formally ceded Parma to Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI in exchange for his recognition as King of Naples and Sicily. Charles of Bourbon returned to Spain via Barcelona, where he wished to set foot for the first time as new king. Statue of Charles III in Madrid (Juan Adsuara), 1966, Charles III, statue du Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Coat of arms as Infante of Spain, Sovereign Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, and Grand Prince and Heir of Tuscany(1731–1735)[50], Coat of arms as Infante of Spain and King of Naples(1736–1759)[50], Coat of arms as Infante of Spain and King of Sicily(1736–1759), Coat of arms as King of Spain(1761–1788)[51]. In 1718, Alberoni also ordered the invasion of Sicily, which was also ruled by the House of Savoy. In early 1762, Spain entered the war. Charles's half-brother, Infante Philip Peter, died on 29 December 1719, putting Charles third in line to the throne after Louis and Ferdinand. He was very supportive of the people's needs, regardless of class, and has been hailed[29] as an Enlightenment king. Charles III the Short Capet-Durazzo of Naples, King of Naples, Prince of Achaea, King of Hungary, was born 1345 to Luigi di Durazzo (1324-1362) and Margaret of Sanseverino (?-?) Intrieri writes that the arrival was a historic event and that the crowd cried out that "His Royal Highness is beautiful, that his face is as the one of San Gennaro on the statue that the representative". The Siege of Gaeta, which Charles observed, ended on 6 August. Charles's formally abdicated the crowns of Naples and Sicily on 6 October 1759 in favor of Ferdinand. He married Jeanne de Bourbon (1338-1378) 8 April 1350 JL . Find the perfect Charles De Bourbon stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. 10 May 1505 marriage: Moulins (Allier), ♀ Suzanne de Bourbon-Beaujeu [] b. At that point, Charles was proclaimed King of Spain under the name of Charles III of Spain. The ensuing Anglo-Spanish War stopped the ambitions of Elisabeth Farnese, and the marriage plans were abandoned with the signing of the Treaty of Seville on 9 November 1729. And to the duchesse d'Orléans she writes: "I find her the most beautiful and most lovable child in the world. Charles, by the Grace of God King of Naples, Sicily and of Jerusalem, etc. Naples. However, Spain was forced to back down when the British Royal Navy was mobilized and France declined to support Spain. On 27 February, King Philip declared his intention to capture the Kingdom of Naples, claiming he would free it of "excessive violence by the Austrian Viceroy of Naples, oppression, and tyranny". Charles III of Spain, known as Charles of Bourbon (1716–1788), King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name. [19] The Neapolitan king subsequently managed to iron out his differences with the Pope, after long negotiations, through the mediation of its ambassador in Rome, Cardinal Acquaviva, the archbishop Giuseppe Spinelli and the chaplain Celestino Galiani. The treaty included the transfer to Naples of all the inherited goods of the House of Farnese. In the capital, he also had the famous Puerta de Alcalá constructed along with the statue of Alcachofa fountain, and moved and redesigned the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid. He gained valuable experience in his 25-year rule in Italy, so that he was well prepared as monarch of the Spanish Empire. For a long time after, he remained at Aranjuez, leaving the government in the hands of his minister Count of Aranda. For American-born Spaniards, at a stroke, the most wealthy and prestigious religious order that educated their sons and accepted a chosen few into their ranks were consigned to Italian exile. Camillo Paderni who was in charge of excavated items at the King's Palace in Portici was also the first to attempt in reading obtained scrolls from the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum.[31]. Under Charles's reign, Spain began to be recognized as a nation state rather than a collection of kingdoms and territories with a common sovereign. .p { height: 4.5em; } Charles III wanted to keep fighting the following year, but he was persuaded by the French leadership to stop. The French government ceded its largest territory in North America, New France to Britain as a result the conflict. Since he was still a minor, his maternal grandmother, Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg, was named regent. The Spanish Army and Navy were reorganized despite the losses from the Seven Years War. Charles is usually considered the first King of Naples from the Bourbon family. Those territories were separated from it, leaving huge possessions in Spanish America and the Philippines, which Charles III ruled. Although he did not achieve complete control over Spain's finances, and was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses, most of his reforms proved successful in providing increased revenue to the crown and expanding state power, leaving a lasting legacy. During his early rule in Spain, he appointed Italians, including the Marquess of Esquilache and Duke of Grimaldi, who supported reforms by Count of Campomanes. Jesuit properties, included thriving haciendas, were confiscated, the colleges educating their sons closed, and frontier missions were turned over to other religious orders. He claimed the succession to the patrimony of the Bourbon family, including the Seigneurie de Bourbon, on the death in 1503 without male heirs of Pierre II Duc de Bourbon. He and his wife had the Capodimonte porcelain Factory constructed in the city. He was crowned Charles VII of Naples on 3 July 1735. Charles de Bourbon Il est usuel de considérer Charles comme le premier Roi de Naples de la dynastie bourbonienne et, en effet, il est assurément le grand restaurateur du Royaume. Charles III, Duke of Bourbon (17 February 1490 – 6 May 1527) was a French military leader, the Count of Montpensier, Clermont and Auvergne, and Dauphin of Auvergne from 1501 to 1523, then Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Forez and La Marche, and Lord of Beaujeu from 1505 to 1521. birth: 18 November 1662, Paris, Île-de-France, France. Discover the family tree of Charles III D'Espagne de BOURBON for free, and learn about their family history and their ancestry. The Spanish Empire has been called "improbable," since Iberian Spain had been poor and did not have natural endowments, but its empire was huge and far-flung, starting in the late fifteenth century. He died in the palace on 14 December 1788. The courage shown by Charles caused the King of Sardinia, his enemy, to write that "he revealed a worthy consistency of his blood and that he behaved gloriously".[26].